Lockheed Martin, headquarters in the US, is the world's biggest arms firm. [15] Aircraft include the widely-sold F-16 and the massive F-35 stealth combat aircraft programme. Missile systems include the submarine-launched Trident missile, the main element in the strategic nuclear force of the US and UK.


Lockheed's UK arm applied for 105 military export licences during 2008 - 2015. Other sales are direct from the US, including the current F-35 supplies to Israel and the previous F-16 exports. Lockheed's military interest in graphene includes its use in Lithium-Ion batteries, used to power drones.

IAI is Israel's prime aerospace and aviation manufacturer, wholly owned by the government, producing aerial and astronautic systems for both military and civilian usage. IAI designs and builds civil aircraft, drones, fighter aircraft, missile, avionics, space-based systems, and military systems for ground and naval forces, for domestic use and export. As Saif writes:

The three Israeli main military companies, Elbit, IAI, and Rafael are on the list of the world’s top arms dealers. Israel is not only using its military inventions to dominate another people, it uses these people as a field test to improve the efficiency of its newly developed weapons. As Darry Li puts it blankly,


“Israel is using the Gaza Strip as a laboratory for its policies.”




BAE Systems is the world's third largest arms producer, making fighter aircraft, warships, tanks, armoured vehicles, artillery, missiles and small arms ammunition. It has military customers in over 100 countries and around 93% of its sales are military. BAE applied for 1,593 UK military export licences during 2008 – 2015.  In 2006, the Serious Fraud Office dropped an investigation into corruption in sales to Saudi Arabia when Prime Minister Tony Blair intervened on national security grounds. The case continued in the US, ending in a plea bargain with the US Dept of Justice which was settled with a $400m criminal fine.


Selected combat aircraft in the F-16I fleet (delivered to the Israel Defence Force) were equipped with BAE Systems Head-Up Display units, an arrangement defended in 2002 by the then Foreign Secretary Jack Straw after fifteen people including nine children were killed during a “targetted attack” on Gaza. BAE's wholly-owned Jerusalem subsidiary Rokar helped upgrade F-16s with “close collaboration between Israeli defense industries, the cooperation of Lockheed Martin the F- 16 original manufacturer and the assistance of the Israeli Ministries of Defense and Finance”.  Rokar supplies Electronic Countermeasures including chaff and flares for use on F-16s and other military aircraft. In close collaboration with the Israel Defense Forces, Rokar also produces a guidance system for artillery shells “to hit designated targets in urban environments with friendly forces nearby”.

Rolls-Royce is the world's 17th largest arms company  producing military aircraft engines, naval engines and cores for nuclear submarines. It applied for 393 UK military export licences during 2008 – 2015.  Rolls-Royce and QinetiQ are amongst the partners in ongoing EPSRC-funded research at UoM (“Electrochemical Energy Storage with Graphene-Enabled Materials”, led by Prof. RAW Dryfe in the School of Chemistry) to develop Lithium batteries and supercapacitors incorporating graphene.



Morgan Advanced Materials, incorporating NP Aerospace, supplies Security and Defence markets. As well as the EPSRC project mentioned above, it collaborates with UoM in research on graphene production.

Samsung has incorporated graphene in lithium-rechargeable batteries. It has a drone, robotics and virtual reality lab. It has signalled its intention to increase investment in Israel.



The Office of Naval  Research (ONR) coordinates, executes, and promotes the science and technology programs of the United States Navy and Marine Corps.  The Electronics Science and Technology Division of ONR's Naval Research Laboratory is interested in graphene.

Siemens produces naval technology, and has a contract with BAE for software used in Trident submarine development.

QinetiQ is the 6th largest UK arms company having been privatised from the MoD in 2001.  The company are "experts in defence, aerospace and security" and a "world leading" supplier of military robotics. Its 2017 Annual Report refers to unmanned autonomous combat systems for air, ground and sea. Its interest in nanotechnology includes batteries, supercapacitors, and graphene for nanoelectronics.



GE Aviation supplies engines for 126 F-16s in the Israeli fleet. [14] When GE signed an agreement with a subsidiary of Israel Aircraft Industries in 1999, the company proclaimed “GEAE engines power most of the front-line fighter aircraft and helicopters of the IAF, and are competing for the engines for new IAF fighter aircraft now under consideration